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The American Civil War, Day by Day 1862
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Author:  nsimms [ Tue Dec 25, 2012 6:06 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1862

December 26, 1862 Friday
Gen Sherman’s expedition down the Mississippi River from Memphis landed on the Yazoo River near Steele’s Bayou. He advanced toward the line of bluffs known as Walnut Hills and Haynes’ Bluff, protecting Vicksburg on the north ( ). Federal forces under Rosecrans moved out from Nashville toward Bragg’s army at Murfreesboro, Tennessee with action at La Vergne, Franklin, Nolensville, and Knob Gap.

In raiding, Morgan fought at Bacon Creek ( ) and Nolin ( ), Kentucky and operated against Rosecrans’ railroad lines. Forrest was withdrawing from Grant’s lines in Tennessee after considerable destruction. For the Federals, S.P. Carter’s small force of cavalry left Manchester, Kentucky for the upper Tennessee Valley, destroying railroad bridges and fighting skirmishes, in particular one at Perkins’ Mill or Elk Fort, Dec 28. The raid lasted until Jan 5. Federals attacked a guerrilla camp in Powell County, Kentucky. At Mankato, Minnesota 38 Indians were hanged for participating in the Sioux uprising that altogether cost 450 or more lives ( ... akota.html ) . Another was pardoned at the last minute.

Major General Darius N. Couch ( ), USA, is relieved of command of the 2nd Army Corps, Federal Army of the Potomac and Major General John Sedgwick ( ), USA, assumes command, returning from his wounds received at Antietam.

Author:  nsimms [ Wed Dec 26, 2012 6:52 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1862

December 27, 1862 Saturday
Sherman’s troops picked their way across the swamps and bayous north of Vicksburg toward the bluffs. They engaged in minor fighting at Snyder’s Mill against Confederate pickets as Pemberton rushed in troops to defend Vicksburg. Rosecrans’ army continued its march toward Bragg at Murfreesboro, Tennessee; there was some skirmishing on the Jefferson Pike at Stewart’s Creek Bridge, Triune, Franklin, and on the Murfreesboro Pike at another Stewart’s Creek Bridge. Morgan’s Confederates captured a Union garrison at Elizabethtown, Kentucky ( ). There was a skirmish at Elizabeth City, North Carolina and another at Dumfries, Virginia. William Hays, USA, was appointed to Brigadier General.

Rear Admiral D. D. Porter received a request from Brigadier Willis A. Gorman for assistance in the forthcoming campaign in Arkansas that had started this date over the Boston Mountains ( ... -1862.html ). Though his fleet was "fully employed," Porter nevertheless ordered U.S.S. Conestoga to begin the requested patrolling action "between the White and Arkansas rivers as occasion may require. But," he added in his instructions to Lieutenant Commander Selfridge, "Arkansas is the main point to look after. We will occupy it soon with troops." Meanwhile, that day Porter's squadron was involved in a heated engagement with Confederate batteries on the Yazoo. U.S.S. Benton, commanded by Lieutenant Commander Gwin, continuing to carry on the removal of torpedoes after Cairo's destruction a fortnight before, with U.S.S. Cincinnati, Baron de Kalb, Louisville, Lexington, Marmora, and ram Queen of the West in company, returned the fire of the battery's eight heavy guns at Drumgould's Bluff. As Porter observed., "The old war horse., Benton, has been much cut up, and the gallant, noble Gwin, I fear, mortally wounded." Nonetheless, Porter was able to report that the Yazoo was cleared of torpedoes to within one-half mile of the battery and to remark "we gave the enemy enough to occupy them to-day, and drew off a large portion of their force." Cooperating fully with the Army during the preparations for renewed engagements along the Mississippi, the Navy constantly harassed Confederate forces at Drumgould's Bluff, as well as those at Haynes' Bluff and elsewhere, as the squadron's mobile fire power kept Confederate troops off balance and dispersed.

U.S.S. Magnolia, commanded by Acting Master Charles Potter, captured British schooner Carmita northwest of Marquesas Keys, Florida, attempting to run the blockade. U.S.S. Roebuck, Master John Sherrill, captured British schooner Kate attempting to run into St. Mark's River, Florida, with cargo of salt, coffee, copper, and liquor.

Author:  nsimms [ Thu Dec 27, 2012 7:21 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1862

December 28, 1862 Sunday
Light fighting continued as Sherman approached the Vicksburg bluffs near the Yazoo River and as Rosecrans proceeded toward Murfreesboro. Morgan destroyed a bridge at Muldraugh’s Hill in Kentucky near Lincoln’s birthplace, and also fought at Bacon Creek before escaping into Tennessee by Jan 1. There was skirmishing near Suffolk and at Providence Church, Virginia. Federals evacuated New Madrid, Missouri. The Federal Army of the Frontier under James Blunt fought the Confederates at Dripping Springs ( ... ings1.html ), Arkansas and drove them in and through Van Buren ( ... ttle1.html ), capturing about forty wagons, four steamers, and other equipment. Major General Franklin Gardner ( ), CSA, assumes command of Confederate operations at Port Hudson, Louisiana. U.S.S. Anacostia, commanded by Acting Master Nelson Provost, seized schooner Exchange in the Rappahannock River.

Author:  nsimms [ Fri Dec 28, 2012 6:59 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1862

December 29, 1862 Monday
Sherman’s forces advanced despite destructive fire toward the foot of the bluffs north of Vicksburg near Chickasaw Bayou. However, the advance was to no avail. A relatively small portion of Pemberton’s army easily held off the more numerous Federals. Although there was follow-up action the next few days, a second attempt on Vicksburg had been foiled. Sherman, admitting his failure, lost 208 killed, 1005 wounded, and 563 missing for a total of 1776 out of about 31,000 effectives. The Confederates lost only 63 killed, 134 wounded, and 10 missing for 207 out of about 14,000 engaged. The position was simply too strong to storm – it was reminiscent of Fredericksburg ( ... saw-bayou/ and ... _bayou.htm ).

On the roads to Murfreesboro from Nashville there was skirmishing at Lizzard between Triune and Murfreesboro and at Wilkerson’s Cross Road. Morgan was still skirmishing near Johnson’s Ferry or Hamilton’s Ford on Rolling Fork ( ), and he captured a stockade at Boston, Kentucky. Federal S.P. Carter in his east Tennessee expedition passed Moccasin Gap and captured a small group of Confederates on the Blountsville Road. There also was an affair near Plaquemine, Louisiana. Generals John Newton and Cochrane of General Burnside's staff interview President Lincoln on Burnside's plans and ask for his removal. John Adams, CSA, and William Hicks Jackson, CSA, were appointed to Brigadier General. U.S.S. Magnolia, commanded by Acting Master Potter, seized blockade running British sloop Flying Fish off Tortugas.

Author:  nsimms [ Sat Dec 29, 2012 6:01 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1862

December 30, 1862 Tuesday
Sherman remained in his frustrating Chickasaw Bayou position in front of the bluffs at Vicksburg. Rosecrans slowly approached the main Confederate force outside Murfreesboro with fighting at Jefferson, La Vergne, Rock Spring, and Nolensville, Tennessee. Morgan fought again at Springfield and at New Haven, Kentucky as he withdrew. Carter in his Federal raid captured Union and Carter’s Depot, Tennessee and destroyed bridges across the Holston and the Watauga Rivers. There also was a skirmish at La Grange, Arkansas and a two-day Union expedition in Virginia from Falmouth to Warrenton and another from Potomac Creek to Richards’ and Ellis’ Fords.

In Washington President Lincoln produced for his Cabinet a preliminary draft of the final Emancipation Proclamation, to be issued the first of the year, with a request for suggestions. Concerned over dejection and dissension in the Army of the Potomac, Lincoln wired Burnside at Fredericksburg, “I have good reason for saying you must not make a general movement of the army without letting me know.”

Shortly after midnight U.S.S. Monitor foundered off Cape Hatteras in heavy seas with the loss of sixteen officers and men. Monitor sent a distress signal at 11 PM. Her escort, Rhode Island, rescued forty-seven officers and men. The hero of the battle with Merrimack, never very sea-worthy, was being towed to the Carolina coast.

Author:  nsimms [ Sun Dec 30, 2012 9:09 pm ]
Post subject:  Re: The American Civil War, Day by Day 1862

December 31, 1862 Wednesday
The Confederates at Murfreesboro, Tennessee had awaited assault from Rosecrans’ advancing Federal army, but it had not come on the thirtieth. Now both generals resolved to attack on the last day of the year. Bragg was to swing with his left to crush the Federal right flank; Rosecrans was to swing in much the same way. But Bragg got the initiative and immediately after dawn Hardee’s reinforced Southern corps opened strongly on the Federal right. From the beginning the Federals were on the defensive. The Confederate divisions wheeled into line and the Federals wheeled with them, holding for a time until, after several assaults on the Northern flank, the Federals were forced back to the Murfreesboro-Nashville Pike and pinned with their backs against Stone’s River. Rosecrans’ offensive was called off and by noon he had a strong defensive line along the turnpike. Assaults continued until late afternoon, but the Federals did not break. Casualties of the assaulting Confederates had been heavy but success was theirs. After the day-long fight the armies remained on the field within range of each other; the Confederates entrenching, the Federals conferring. They could withdraw toward Nashville, for the road was still open; they could stay along the road with their backs to the river. Rosecrans, supported by George H. Thomas, decided to stay. Confederate cavalry under Joseph Wheeler ( ) had been active all day, riding completely around the Federal army, seizing wagons and supplies and fighting skirmishes. The armies rested as the early December evening fell upon the battlefield ( and for battlefield preservation history and for pictures). Brigadier General James Edward Rains ( ), CSA, is killed instantly by a rifle shot while leading his command in a charge against a Federal artillery battery during the Battle of Stones River (Murfreesboro), Tennessee. Brigadier General Joshua Woodrow Sill ( ), USA, is killed instantly while leading his command during the Battle of Stones River (Murfreesboro), Tennessee. Brigadier General Edward Needles Kirk ( ), USA, is mortally wounded while leading his command during the Battle of Stones River (Murfreesboro), Tennessee. He dies at home in Sterling, Illinois, on July 29, 1863..

Sherman continued to explore various plans for assaulting the bluffs at Vicksburg from Chickasaw Bayou. There was an affair at Muldraugh’s Hill in Kentucky and a skirmish at Overall’s Creek, Tennessee; as well as an affair at Plaquemine, Louisiana that lasted until Jan 3. At Parker’s Store or Cross Roads, Tennessee near Lexington, Forrest, attempting to escape Federal pursuers after his successful raid on Grant’s lines, found his way blocked. He managed to push forward, but then was hit also from behind. Forrest was beaten, losing three hundred prisoners, guns, horses, and materiel of war he had captured. But his command managed to escape ( ... dsmap.html and ). Confederate John S. Marmaduke ( ) began a month-long raid from Arkansas into Missouri.

In Washington, President Lincoln met with his Cabinet to make final adjustments in the Emancipation Proclamation. Burnside, called for court-martial testimony, met with the President. Mr Lincoln approved an act admitting West Virginia into the Union as the thirty-fifth state, and also signed an agreement with a promoter for a colony of free Negroes on Ile a Vache, Haiti.

President Davis wired his Secretary of War from Mobile, “Guns and ammunition most effective against iron clads needed at Vicksburg and Port Hudson. Very much depends upon prompt supply.”

The Confederate embargo, the capture of New Orleans, and the Union Navy's blockade combined to curtail greatly the export of the South's major product, cotton. Meanwhile, the North's control of the seas, threatened only by a few Confederate commerce raiders, granted the Union access to the world markets for the importation of war materials and exportation of produce such as wheat, which was a major factor in deterring European powers from recognizing the Confederacy.

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